My humans have been worrying about the future a lot this week. The weather people say it’s going to get cold (no one seems to remember how often they’re wrong), and with cold weather comes colicky horses. That got me thinking, so this week I asked Kayla, Nancy, Beth, and MJ what they worry about more now that they’ve worked here and seen all the things horses really can do to themselves. After all, they see hundreds of horse problems every year, so they have plenty to worry about with their own horses. We call that the Curse of Knowledge. Here’s their Top 5 list.
#1 Eye ulcers
Maybe you’ve had the Docs come out and put some of that fluorescent green dye in the eye. Then they tell you to use a few ointments 4 times per day, give some Bute or Banamine, and they come back out to check it again in a few days. Lots of eyes heal perfectly well this way. The ones that don’t, however, are the ones my team worries about. My minions have all had the joy of treating ulcers in eyes. They say what makes this one Number 1 on their list is that everything can be done absolutely perfectly, and things can still go bad. These ulcers are also very expensive and extremely time consuming. Treatment very quickly goes into the thousands of dollars, and is a minimum of 4 weeks. My minions also agree eye problems are a great reason to have major medical insurance on your horse!
#2 Very specific lacerations
Last year we had a weanling come in with a very small cut over her hock. She was an extremely well-bred barrel horse. Turns out that small cut went into the hock joint. It looked like no big deal, but because of the location, it was life-threatening. That’s right: life-threatening. Wounds in joints can very easily lead to infections in joints, and infections in joints are extremely difficult to clear in horses. Luckily, with about $5,000 in treatments, my Docs were able to get this one cleared up. MJ was horrified at how small the wound was, how easy it was to overlook, and how bad it all could have ended up. She says she’ll never take a wound for granted again! We all know horses are incredibly fragile, but MJ was amazed to see it action. Also, yet another reason to have major medical insurance on these crazy horses.
This one had to be on the list. However, my minions said they view colic very differently than they did before working here. All colics used to scare them. Now it’s the colics that don’t respond quickly to drugs. Then they go into full on panic. You see, most colics get some sedation and a little pain relief, a whole lot of water and electrolytes, and off they go. It’s the ones that get painful again very quickly that scare my minions. Too often those are surgical colics. Even if they aren’t surgical, they do require lots of fluids, pain meds, and care. These colics are always touch and go for a bit. And yet another reason to insure horses!
PS on this one: coastal hay is the number one cause of colics. You can feed coastal to your horse, but please, please, please also feed some alfalfa or peanut hay!!
#4 Tendon Injuries
You pick up the trot one day and something doesn’t feel quite right. You wait a day or two and try again: still not right. My Docs come out and do a lameness evaluation, put some novocaine in different parts of the leg until the lameness goes away, and then do an ultrasound. You know you should be worried when the Doc gets “that look” on her face. She tells you it’s a proximal suspensory tear. Why do my minions fear this diagnosis so much? They know it’s a minimum of 6 months of rehab work before we even know if things are going to be back to normal. They know with some of these small tendons and ligaments (like the oblique sesamoidean) that it is nearly impossible to get the horses back to normal. They also know that the best shot for healing comes with extremely diligent physical therapy work, and most people don’t do so well at that part.
#5 Lay Tooth Floaters
I saved this one for last, but it should probably be higher on the list. There are lots of people out there who will “do your horse’s teeth” for not a lot of money. You get what you pay for. Unfortunately you also often get much, much less than you pay for. My minions have seen broken teeth, missed tumors, infections caused or made worse, and, simply put, really bad floats done. Even worse, many lay floaters sedate horses which is AGAINST THE LAW. My Docs went to school for a really long time to know all the things that can go wrong when they sedate a horse. They drive around with a truck full of stuff to manage problems if things do go wrong. My Docs have the knowledge to understand how that little thing they see can be an indicator of BIG problems. I can’t be any clearer: Lay floaters are not a good answer for your horse’s health. Dentistry should be done with bright lights, sedation, a speculum, and a doctor.
Want to know how to keep your horse safe in a scary world? Communicate! My Docs and minions are here to help you. Send pictures, call, email in questions. From abscesses to zoonoses, they’ve got you covered. Now I’m headed for a long winter’s nap.
Tuesdays with Tony is the official blog of Tony the Office Cat at Springhill Equine Veterinary Clinic in Newberry, Florida. For more information, please call us at (352) 472-1620, visit our website at SpringhillEquine.com, or follow us on Facebook!
I recently spoke about teeth and dentals, but I’m going to do it again. This time I’m going to talk about myths and legends surrounding horse teeth. There’s a saying I hear around here quite often: No Hoof, No Horse. I have a second version: No Tooth, Expensive Feed Bill. Read on to learn about how to avoid the expensive feed bill. After you finish reading, call, email, or message the Clinic to set up a dental float during the month of July and enjoy a $35 discount!
1.Young horses don’t need dentals
Very, very, very not true. Horses under the age of five years have a ton of stuff going on in their mouths. They have baby teeth leaving and adult teeth growing in. Major changes happen about every 6 months. On top of that, baby teeth and young adult teeth are very soft. This makes them form super-sharp points ridiculously fast. In addition, all those changes need to be monitored. If a tooth erupts not quite correctly, it can be corrected now, and you can avoid a lifetime of dental corrections.
2. Miniature horses don’t need dentals
If ever there was a snaggle-toothed bunch of horses, it’s miniatures. They try to fit the same number of teeth in their mouth as a full-size horse. Sometimes it goes very badly. Minis also like to get what are called supernumerary teeth. These are extra teeth that form for no good reason and cause mass chaos in a mouth. The earlier they are identified, and removed, the better the rest of the teeth will do.
3. Power tools are bad
I covered this one last time, but I’m going to do it again, since I hear this myth the most. Power tools aren’t bad. They let my Docs do the same job on the first horse of the day, and the 10th horse of the day. Power tools get the job done faster, with less stress on your horse, and my Docs. Know what makes power tools bad? People who don’t know how to use them. That’s not my Docs. They go to continuing education every year to stay up to date on the latest research. They also participate in veterinary online forums discussing dentistry for horses. If you have ever used a drill or power saw, then you understand the benefits of power tools. Hand drilling and sawing takes a long, long time, and you’re exhausted after one hole, or board.
4.You can perform a dental float without sedation
Alright, I’ve seen this one a few times. One of these people is even a veterinarian, I’m ashamed to say. Let me nip this in the bud right here and now. Sedation, a full mouth speculum, and a bright light are required to see ALL of your horse’s mouth. Anything less is bad medicine. That mouth goes way back there! There is simply no way to fully evaluate a mouth with anything less!
5. Old horses don’t need dentals
I will give you that some horses, during some periods of their lives, can go two years between dentals. These are horses between 10 and 15 years, who are working as lawn mowers or being lightly ridden periodically, and have a history of dental evaluations which demonstrated good teeth. No matter the age, if your horse is being regularly ridden, it should have a dental float yearly. There may not be much to correct, but that little bit is just as annoying to your horse as that little pebble in your shoe. After about 15 years of age, yearly dental evaluations are needed to check for old teeth. Horses start to wear out their teeth sometime between 15 and 25. The range is that big because a lot of factors are involved in the wearing out of something as significant as a horse tooth. Worn out teeth cause significant pain! Can you imagine chewing on celery with a painful tooth? Yeah, me either. Don’t make your horse chew hay with one.
Keep the pearly whites pearly and white! Schedule your dental evaluation and float In-Clinic during July and get $35 off!! Seriously, that’s a deal! Be sure to bring tuna fish for me, and I will grace you with my presence. I expect scratches under the chin, behind my ears, and along my back.
Tuesdays with Tony – Dentals
My usual Saturday solitude was disturbed this past weekend by Dr. Lacher. I had planned on a day of lying on the counter, watching the world through the front window, but instead I watched her do three dentals. I digress momentarily to point out that these three horses are part of our amazing Wellness Program. Click here to find out more about this money, time, and, even, life saving program here at Springhill Equine! Anyway, back to my story. I noticed some things (as a cat, it’s what I do) while watching Dr. Lacher perform these dentals that I would like to share with you.
The first thing I noticed was a nice dose of sedation for each horse. I thought this was very considerate of Dr. Lacher. I, personally, get full-on anesthesia for dentistry, and I know many humans who would like a nice dose of sedative at the dentist. Dr. Lacher explained to me that this wasn’t just for fun. Sedation allows her to place something called a full-mouth speculum. Turns out, much like me, horses simply will not stand there with their mouth wide open while you work on their teeth. A speculum holds the mouth open so Dr. Lacher can do what is probably the most important part of the dental: a full oral exam.
What’s in there???
Holy teeth, Batman! With the speculum on, a bright light shining in there, and the help of a really, really big dental mirror, I was able to see that horse teeth go WAY back. I’m pretty sure they went back at least 5, maybe even 6 feet. That may be an exaggeration, but they go way back there. It was at this point that Dr. Lacher told me some people don’t even use sedation, or a full mouth speculum, or a bright light when they work on horse teeth. I realize I am a cat, and therefore of superior intelligence, but I don’t understand how anyone thinks they can see all the way to the back of the mouth without sedation, a full mouth speculum, and a really bright light. Humans. They do concern me with their decisions sometimes!
OK, but power tools?
After doing an incredibly thorough exam of the mouth, Dr. Lacher pulled out two different power tools. “Whoa!” I said, “just what do you think you’re doing with those?”
“Floating teeth,” was her reply. By the way, in case you are wondering why we call it floating, as I was, it is an older woodworking term for filing wood down until it is smooth.
Dr. Lacher explained that power tools allow her to do a better, more thorough job, in less time with less wear and tear on the horse, and much less wear and tear on her. It allows her to the same job on the first horse she does on the 10th horse of the day. Just like any power tool, it’s not the tool, it’s how you use it. Dr. Lacher further explained that it’s why our Docs go through extensive dentistry training on a very regular basis. They keep up on the latest and greatest in information and treatments for all kinds of dentistry. Power tools get all kinds of bad press, but how many people do you know who saw wood by hand? Same concept.
By the end of the morning, I had learned a good deal more than I ever cared to know about equine dentistry. I learned doing less is way better than doing more, I learned about sharp points and excess transverse ridges, and I even got to see a tooth extraction. Luckily for Dr. Lacher, she was out of the Clinic by noon so I could return to my regularly scheduled Saturday activity. I am pleased to report that seven cars, one dog, and 27 birds were seen out the front window between noon and 3pm at which time I was needed in the cat bed in the back office. Until next week: Happy Napping!
First of all, don’t forget to get out there and VOTE today! I would, but they have this weird policy against cats voting…
Boy did I have a busy week here at the clinic! First, I had to share my favorite cat bed with a pig named Tank, who was boarding here for the week. Then, early Sunday morning I had to supervise the foaling of a mare with Dr. Lacher, and later help teach her colt to nurse for the first time. He’s lucky he’s cute, because usually I sleep until at least 11 hours on Sundays. Thank goodness we got an “extra hour” with the time change this past weekend, or my delicate sleep schedule would be all out of whack!
The doctors were running all over the area this past week, from Lake City to Ocala. Dr. Lacher stopped by Lynn Palm’s Open House on Saturday to demonstrate our awesome FES machine. If you haven’t tried it on your horse yet, you really have to! At $65 per treatment, it’s way less expensive than a chiropractor, masseuse, joint injections, or other treatments for performance horses. FES has helped dozens of our patients to run faster, jump higher, and move more comfortably than ever before. I have even used it on myself, and let me tell you, it feels awesome.
In addition to lameness exams, foal watch, and routine appointments, Dr. Vurgason and Dr. Lacher treated a nasty, infected corneal ulcer in a horse’s eye. It’s amazing what a difference the right medications, administered effectively, can do for a horse!
I invited almost-Dr. Chloe here for an externship last week, and she was great. She let me in the front door whenever I asked, even if I had just asked to go out 30 seconds prior. She hasn’t decided if she wants to be a horse-vet or a cat-vet yet. Personally, I don’t understand why everybody doesn’t want to be a cat vet…we are all so cute and soft and cuddly! Amongst other things, Chloe helped Dr. Vurgason extract 2 teeth from an aged gelding with a painful condition called Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis (EOTRH). Say that 5 times fast! We don’t know why this happens to certain horses, but we know it causes the body to attack its own teeth, dissolving bone in some spots, and thickening the tooth in others. Unlike infections of the molars in the back of the mouth, EOTRH affects the incisors, and often causes horses to go off their feed due to pain. The gelding, Fortune, is able to eat much more comfortably now.
In addition to Tank who was as healthy as, well…a pig, Dr. Vurgason treated 3 sick piglets this week. I like the pig patients, because they usually come to the clinic to see me. Although I must say, they can be pretty loud! There is nothing pigs hate more than being restrained. This makes things like taking a temperature, listening to heart and lung sounds, and giving any medication quite a challenge. With pigs, veterinarians rely heavily on observation and asking their owners questions to determine the correct diagnosis.
Between horses, pigs, and the docs, my managerial duties have been in full force! I think I need a nap. And anyway, with the time change and the days getting shorter, 5:00 feels more like 8:00, which is my bedtime. I’ll catch you cats next week!
When Pigs Fly
I thought I had seen just about everything in my 9 lives. While I didn’t actually spot any pigs flying on Saturday, I did see several swimming in Kiddie Pools, walking on leashes, and eating watermelon during our first annual Piggy Ice Cream Social! It was quite the spectacle. I chose to park myself at a safe distance in front of the fans and speakers that the humans set up for me, and I waited for everyone to come give me attention. It worked.
In case you humans needed yet another reason to come and adore me at the clinic, this month we are offering $35 off in-house dentals! I didn’t quite understand why horses require so much dental care, so I asked the docs about it after Saturday’s social, and this is what I learned:
Unlike the superior feline species, horse teeth continue to grow throughout their lives. The fancy doctor word for this is hypsodont dentition. As the teeth erupt from the gum line, they are gradually ground down by forage in the horse’s diet. Humans have done a few things to fowl up this natural process of wear and tear, including feeding horses large grain meals to replace grazing on the prairie, and breeding horses to have extra long or short heads, which often means their teeth no longer line up.
In an ideal situation, the top rows of cheek teeth line up with the bottom rows of cheek teeth, and when the horse grinds it’s food in a circular motion, all of the teeth wear down evenly. (We are talking about molars and premolars now, not the incisors, which you see when you lift up the lips.) In reality, it is common for the top rows of teeth to stick out farther in the front, and the bottom rows of teeth to stick out farther in the back. This causes sharp hooks and ramps, respectively, to form.
In addition, the horse’s upper jaw is wider than the lower jaw. Over time this causes sharp enamel points to form on the cheek side of the upper teeth, and the tongue side of the lower teeth. Sharp points lead to ulcerations, which lead to pain, which lead to difficulty eating, which leads to weight loss…
Moral of the story: bring your horse in for a dental float, and the docs will be able to identify and quickly correct any and all of these issues. A healthy horse with an average mouth should have his teeth filed down, or “floated” at least once a year. If your horse has dental problems, such as missing or broken teeth, a wave mouth, a step mouth, or a long history of inadequate dental care, he may need more frequent dental exams.
The only way to thoroughly and safely examine all of a horse’s teeth is with sed
ation, a good light source, and a speculum (that’s the contraption that holds the horse’s mouth open and prevents the doc’s arm from being crushed). Honestly I still wouldn’t be caught dead sticking my paw inside the mouth of a 1000 lb animal with 42 teeth, but then again I’m not a vet!
Now, thanks to my cat wisdom, you are an expert on horse teeth. Feel free to go out and impress your friends with your new knowledge. I won’t even ask for credit, just give me a scratch behind the ears when you bring your horse in for his discounted dental this month!
Tuesdays with Tony
Holy busy week Bat Cat!! This has been one really busy week around here. Not only did the Docs stay super busy but also I had to make sure everything was ready to go for our annual See Tony event the humans call Open House. I have included some pictures for those of you who didn’t make it. Just know that I know who you are and I am judging you for not stopping by to see me.
Let’s start with cases.
We had a few older horses that needed some teeth removed. Unlike cats, horse’s teeth continue to erupt as they age. This means when they get older they have a really short tooth with no root holding it in. This week the Docs saw three horses for routine dentistry that had loose teeth. Luckily these teeth are very easy to extract and it doesn’t seem to bother the horses much. They still get a local Novocain block, and some pain medication but usually once the teeth are out they feel much better.
The horse we cut all that nasty Pythium stuff off of is doing pretty darn well. I got to do a brief cat scan on her when she came by for a checkup. The Docs are using some really cool silver impregnated socks on her legs to help cover the wounds while letting them air out but not exposing them to flies. So far they are feeling pretty good about the socks. Personally I think the horse looks rather silly wearing them and I would never tolerate that as a cool cat.
On Friday while I was trying my best to supervise See Tony 2015, I mean Open House; the Docs were in my way all afternoon working on putting this funny camera thing they called an endoscope up the nose of a horse to see inside a thing they called the guttural pouches. I asked why horses have this crazy pouch in the back of their throat and the answer was no one really knows but they think it works to cool blood on its way to the brain during high speed exercise. That explains why cats don’t work that way: no high speed exercise here thank you very much. Turns out guttural pouches like to get infected and it can be hard to fix. The endoscope let them get a sample directly from the pouch and test it for different bacteria and fungus so they could treat exactly what the problem was. Then Dr. Lacher was busy working on lameness. This horse had a tear in the check ligament. I asked what she was checking the ligament for and she said no it’s called the Check Ligament. I knew that all along; I was just messing with her. It’s what a cat does. Dr. Lacher told me this injury is usually one of the easier ones to manage in horses. A bit of rest and some rehabilitation and off they go. Unfortunately, this horse has re-injured his check ligament. Good news is this ligament isn’t 100% necessary so a little bit of surgery, a little bit of rest, and a little bit of rehab and he should be fine.
Finally, on to the most important day of the week: See Tony Saturday. I kept the humans here late in to the night on Friday and got them here early in the day on Saturday so that all would be perfect for my day. I was so happy to see you all and I trust you learned lots from my minions, I mean humans. I also have to give a big shout out to Bross Hogg’s Lunch Wagon for some seriously good food!